By autumn the plant has reached maximum size, flowered and begun to dry out. Russian Thistle "Tumbleweed," "Russian thistle" and "wind witch" are common names for this symbol of the American west. At maturity, the plant is stiff, prickly, round and bushy. Typical Bloom (varies by elevation) July. The peregrinating (highly traveled) plant also grows abundantly in Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Egypt, Greece, Hawaii, Hungary, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, South Africa and Turkey. Description Like many invasive weeds, Russian thistle exploited the destruction of native ecosystems. Scientific Name. All that is required are temperatures between 28 and 110 degrees Fahrenheit. Leaves are clustered, linear to thread-like, and terminate in a spike. Geology Building, Room 2258 Text provided by Richard D. Goeden, updated by Mark S. Hoddle Plant Type. Treats Wasp Stings. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Russian thistle is a large and bushy annual broadleaf plant that is common in the Mojave Desert. Russian thistle tumbleweed This plant and the related entities and synonyms italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Non Native Invasive Species California - where? Leaves of young plants are fleshy, dark green, narrow, and about 1 inch in length. Green. Salsola is derived from the Latin sallere, "to salt," in reference to the plant’s salt tolerance. The North American Deserts Seeds are unusual in that they lack any protective coat or stored food reserves. Special Characteristics. Russian thistle alludes to its Eurasian origin. Herbicides now control the spread of Russian thistle by disrupting the maturation process of the plant. Russian thistle tumbleweeds present a serious fire hazard. Fax: (951) 827-5104, Department of Entomology Scientific names for tumbleweed include Salsola kali, S. pestifer, S. australis, S. iberica, and S. tragus. When you turn on that function, you allow your camera to get closer to the subject, looking into a flower for example. The use of this herbal treatment has been used since many years ago. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. Photos courtesy of UC IPM and Jack Kelly Clark, Mark Hoddle, Extension Specialist and Director of Center for Invasive Species Researchmark.hoddle@ucr.edu Personal Website, 900 University Ave. "Tumbleweed," "Russian thistle" and "wind witch" are common names for this symbol of the American west. Range Desert Geological Terms, Home  | About | Contact Us | Feedback | Privacy | Site Outline | Advertising on DesertUSA | Aquis Towels | Hotels, 7 Smartphone Apps to Improve Your Camping Experience. Mice, bighorn sheep and pronghorn eat the tender shoots. When moisture falls, the plant is ready to uncoil and germinate. Derivation of the botanical name: Salsola, Latin salsus, salty. Distribution: Russian thistle is a summer annual native to southeastern Russia and western Siberia and was originally introduced into the United States as a contaminant of flax seed in South Dakota in 1873. Although tumbleweed is native to the arid steppes of the Ural Mountains in Russia, it is now ubiquitous throughout the western states, growing in disturbed soils such as agricultural fields, irrigation canals and roadside shoulders and ditches. Russian Thistle, Salsola australis The Situation: Russian thistle, commonly known as tumbleweed, is a profusely branched annual herb. These prickles are an adaptation that protects the plant from being eaten by herbivores. Russian thistle (Salsola tragus) also referred to as tumbleweed is a summer annual belonging to the family Amaranthaceae.Stems of this plant vary in length from 8 to 36 inches, and are stripped with red or purple markings. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. Kali tragus, formerly called Salsola tragus or Salsola kali subsp. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Russian Thistle. The California Department of Food and Agriculture and the University of California Exotic Pests and Diseases Research Program has supported foreign exploration by USDA and UC entomologists in recent years, and natural enemies have been studied at the USDA European Biological Control Laboratory in southern France. Chenopodiaceae. List of various diseases cured by Russian Thistle. How Russian Thistle is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. 900 University Ave. Canada Thistle Despite its common name, this invasive thistle is not native to Canada, but actually native throughout Europe and Northern Asia. Years later, it was identified as Russian thistle, scientific name Salsola tragus, a native plant of Russia and the Eurasian steppes east of the Ural Mountains. Research: Russian thistle is an exotic weed species and is a good candidate for biological control. Phytopathogens may also offer promise and should be investigated as possible biological control agents. Riverside, CA 92521. Russian Thistle Facts •Scientific name - Salsola kali, Salsola australis, Salsola iberica, Salsola tragus •Native to Russia and western Siberia •Arrived in U.S. in 1873 in South Dakota •Found on disturbed sites •Bushy summer annual •Woody at maturity Description. Russian thistles or tumbleweed of the genus Salsola are annual weeds, mostly native to Europe and Asia, but introduced globally. Color. Common Name(s): Russian Thistle, Tumbleweed, Thistle,Russian: Scientific Name: Salsola iberica: Family: Chenopodiaceae: Longevity: Annual: Season: Warm Inconspicuous green flowers grow at axils (where leaf branches off of stem) of the upper leaves, each one accompanied by a pair of spiny bracts. Tel: (951) 827-6555 Russian thistle is a prolific seed producer. ), The Desert Environment Dried ones tumble across desert landscapes, driven by the wind, a recurrent display of desolation in the American Southwest. A specialized layer of cells in the stem facilitates the easy break between plant and root, and the journey begins anew. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. It is likely that alkaline plants grow there. The plant has several common names including Common saltwort, Prickly Russian thistle, Prickly saltwort, Russian thistle, saltwort, Russian tumbleweed, prickly glasswort, roly-poly, spiny saltwort and Soft roly-poly. The Situation: Russian thistle, commonly known as tumbleweed, is a profusely branched annual herb. The stems have distinctive dark purplish striations (parallel to the stem) when the plant is young and growing. Young plants have dark green fleshy leaves that become stiff, shortened, and form a point. Browse by Scientific Name. Wildflower. Notes Plants may be as small as a soccer ball or as large as a Volkswagen beetle. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); DesertUSA Newsletter -- We send articles on hiking, camping and places to explore, as well as animals, wildflower reports, plant information and much more. Riverside, CA 92521 While the economic impact to the state of California has not been well documented, costs include clean-up of public roadways and thoroughfares, loss of seed crops due to contamination by thistle seed and illness or even death of foraging livestock, and degradation of California's valuable and highly diverse wilderness areas. Seedlings have very finely dissected leaves that almost look like pine needles. Non-Native. The more common name for tumbleweeds is Russian thistle. Sal-SO-la TRAY-gus. © 2020 Regents of the University of California. Plants thrive in salty and alkaline soils but will generally be outcompeted by natives in undisturbed habitats. It then quickly sends up two needle-like leaves and begins to shoot skyward. Prickles can also occur all over the plant – on the stem and on the flat parts of the leaves. Instead, each seed is a coiled, embryonic plant wrapped in a thin membrane. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Typically, an involucre with a clasping shape similar to a cup or urn subtends each of a thistle's flowerheads. To survive winter without a warm coat, the plant does not germinate until warm weather arrives. Allergenic – The pollen is an allergen. Echinops exaltatus, also known as Russian globe thistle, is a globe thistle native to Eurasia and an invasive species in Eastern Canada and Northern United States. A pith-boring moth and a case-bearing moth have been established as biocontrol agents in California, but are ineffective. Both Russian thistle and kochia can also be controlled by grazing animals on the plants if they are young. Classification. College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences. More on desert photography. Young plants are suitable for livestock forage and are sometimes grazed. The .gov means it’s official. kali, from the Arabic al qaly, from Kali, an area of Saudi Arabia called the Rub al-Kali or Rub al-Khali, the "Empty Quarter." Care must be taken to supplement the diet of animals if these plants are the sole source of forage in the area or poisoning may result. Most people, however, would fail to recognize the seedling and juvenile plant’s bright green, succulent, grass-like shoots, which are usually red or purple striped. Stems vary from 8 to 36 inches in length and usually have reddish to purplish stripes. There does not yet appear to be a consensus on the preferred scientific name, although S. tragus is the leading candidate for the inland variety of tumbleweed and S. kali, for the more coastal variety. Several herbicides are available that can … The similar Barbwire Russian Thistle (Salsola paulsenii) is not found in the southeastern part of Arizona, while Russian Thistle (Salsola kali) is not found in Arizona. Names of Russian Thistle in various languages of the world are also given. It is now widespread throughout western North America, including virtually all arid and semi-arid regions of California and Russian thistle infests around 100 million acres of land. Duration. Photos and descriptions of Hairy fleabane. Hairy fleabane, a common summer annual or biennial broadleaf of disturbed, unmanaged areas and cultivated fields, may be confused with horseweed, Conyza canadensis.Hairy fleabane is found in the Central Valley, central-western region, and southwestern region, to about 3300 feet (1000 m). Russian Thistle Scientific Name: Salsola kali (also Salsola tragus and Salsola iberica) Russian thistle is least noticed when it is young - slender, green and soft - and most noticed when it's … Within two decades the plant had tumbled into a dozen states, and by 1900, tumbleweed had reached the Pacific Coast. Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. Common name(s): Siberian elm, Asiatic elm, Chinese elm, dwarf elm Scientific name: Ulmus pumila Family: Elm family (Ulmaceae) Reasons for concern: Large, dangerous limbs on older trees can easily break off and seriously damage properties or injure people.It is susceptible to many diseases (not Dutch-elm disease), insects, and growth disorders. Kochia is found in all western states except Alaska. Salsola infests many tens … Damage: Russian thistle is damaging as a seed contaminant, as a forage weed that may contain toxic levels of soluble oxalates and nitrates, and as an alternative host of several economically significant insect species. Both species are non-native to the United States. Abutilon theophrasti - velvetleaf; Acroptilon repens - Russian knapweed; Aegilops cylindrica - jointed goatgrass, jointgrass; Aegilops triuncialis - barb … Hence, you can consult the doctor before using this plant to prevent any risks for sure. It was introduced into the United States in the mid 1870s, possibly as a contaminant in flax seed. Kochia, a native of Asia, was introduced from Europe. Salsola tragus. Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae. As the consequence, it is also known that Russian thistle has benefit to treat smallpox. Russian thistle is the primary host for the beet leafhopper (Circulifera tenellus) that carries the "curly-top virus" of sugar beets, tomatoes, squashes, melons and cucumbers. Riverside, CA 92521, CNAS Dean's Office The stems break at ground level and roll in the wind causing the seeds to fall. Plant Origin. It has become pervasive as an exotic weed species throughout California and the western United States. Although prickly like a thistle, Prickly Russian Thistle is not a true thistle. The seeds require only … Additional insect enemies from the weed's native central Asia should also be introduced and evaluated. Foliage Leaves are … Its efficient taproot, abundant seed production and reduced leaf surface adapt this weed well to disturbed semiarid agricultural environments, rangeland and nonagricultural areas such as vacant resident lots and railroad or highway rights-of-way. Plant Family. Elevation range is from below sea level in Death Valley to over 8500 feet. When farmers removed prairie grasses, they created a perfect environment, smooth and flat, for a plant that could roll across the landscape dispersing seeds. Salsola tragus is the most widespread of eight species of this non-native genus to have become established in the US, after being introduced in the 1870s. tragus: a common weed of disturbed habitats, commonly known as … (It's Free. 3. Within 20 years, it had spread to 16 western states and several Canadian provinces. Plants branch profusely, forming dense clumps, several feet high and wide. Appearance Salsola tragus is an annual herb that can grow to 4 ft. (1.2 m) tall. The Sons of Pioneers made the song Tumbling Tumbleweeds popular in the 1940’s. Or getting up close and personal with a bug. Tumbleweeds were first reported in the United States around 1877 in Bon Homme County, South Dakota, apparently transported in flax seed imported by Ukrainian farmers. Annual. Photo tips: Most digital point-and-shoot cameras have a macro function - usually symbolized by the icon of a little flower. The mature plants break off at ground level, creating spiny, brittle, windblown tumbleweeds that fill drainage canals, catchments and swimming pools, and pile up against fences and dwellings, becoming eyesores, fire hazards, and foci for the accumulation of other windblown debris. It had been accidentally brought to the United States in a shipment of flaxseed. Virtually everyone recognizes a mature Russian thistle, which looks like the skeleton of a normal shrub. Russian thistle alludes to its Eurasian origin. Thus the common name tumbleweed. Other Names: Prickly Russian-thistle, Russian-thistle, Salsola australis, Salsola kali [misapplied], Salsola pestifer, Salsola iberica Russian thistle contains a source of nutrients and essential minerals. Kochia (Kochia scoparia L.) and Russian thistle (Salsola tragus L.) are troublesome annual weeds of rangelands, pastures, fields, disturbed areas, gardens, roadsides, ditchbanks, and small acreages. It is also known as tumbleweed or windwitch. It was likely one of the first weeds introduced by North American settlers in the 1600s as a contaminant in seeds. As it rolls down a desert road, Russian thistle plants do what they do best, disperse seeds, which typically number 250,000 per plant. Russian thistle is a bushy summer annual with numerous slender ascending stems that become quite woody at maturity. A severe drought in the 1930’s in Canada led farmers to use young tumbleweeds as hay and silage for livestock. Below is a list of all the weeds in our database, sorted by scientific name. Scientific Pronunciation. Sign up below or read more about the DesertUSA newsletter here. Tumbleweed is a manybranched, annual herb growing to 2 to 6 feet tall. Scientific names for tumbleweed include Salsola kali, S. pestifer, S. australis, S. iberica, and S. tragus. You may also view the list sorted by common name. The Latin or “scientific” name for most or all of the tumbleweeds occurring in the Antelope Valley is Salsola tragus or Salsola kali. Mites, moths, and beetles that exhibit sufficient host specificity may potentially be effective natural enemies of this weed. The spine-tipped leaves are oval. 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