The calculated values were based on tests conducted on amorphous MSR of various Al-Co-Ce alloys in 0.6 M NaCl solution deaerated, at neutral pH (Scully et al., 2008). Polyurethane heparin-coated stents were morphologically characterized by SEM and elemental analysis using EDS. Plate III. For color version of this figure, the reader is referred to the online version of this book. Typically, SEM instrumentation is equipped with an EDS system to allow for the chemical analysis of features being observed in SEM monitor. The electrons penetrate a depth of 0.02–1.0 μm into the sample and so care must be taken to prepare samples appropriately if information about the bulk is required. Many elements will have overlapping X-ray emission peaks (e.g., Ti Kβ and V Kα, Mn Kβ and Fe Kα). 6.7(a)). (NACE International 2012. SEM images of primers formulated with Pr2O3 in (a) the as-deposited condition and (b) after 500 hours of salt spray exposure; primers formulated with Pr6O11 in (c) the as-deposited condition and (d) after 500 hours of salt spray exposure; and solvent-based primers (e) as-deposited and (f) after 500 hours salt spray. X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM-EDS were used to characterize the evolution of phases and morphologies for as-deposited primers containing Pr2O3, Pr6O11 or talc. After removal, the heparin-coated stents were morphologically, compositionally and qualitatively analyzed. The spectral changes observed in the profiles can be used as a guide for the acquisition of two dimensional spectrum images that can be used to generate two dimensional bonding maps. The solvent-based primer formulation contains both Pr2O3 and gypsum. XRD identified the re-precipitated species formed during salt spray testing as a mixed Pr-hydroxide/hydroxycarbonate composed of Pr(OH)3 and Pr(CO3)OH crystalline phase. The heparin layer could be observed in a cross-section of the stent on the polyurethane substrate: its thickness was estimated at 5 μm, while pores of about 400–500 nm were present on the heparin surface (see Fig. At longer times, limited salting was observed in the scribes. Dot map of a failed component used in oil and gas exploration component showing patchy salt on surface and corresponding Na and Cl distribution. The count rate is hampered by its reliance on the time constant of the calorimeter's electrical circuit. (a) Surface of the stent before insertion; (b) internal surface of the stent after 1 month of indwelling in a non-encrusted zone; (c) biofilm-encrusted zone of the internal surface; (d) external surface of the heparin-coated stent; (e) calcium oxalate deposition on an internal surface. The presence of an organic bacteria biofilm was evidenced by the increase of the water content at 3280 cm−1 and by the peaks at 3000–2800 cm−1, belonging to the stretching vibrations of—CH3 and —CH2 groups (see the dashed rectangle). The amount of Pr(OH)3 and CaSO4•2H2O detected in the coating was normalized against TiO2, which was assumed to be inert and not changing in composition during salt spray exposure. Simultaneous SEM and EDS analysis is advantageous in failure analysis cases where spot analysis becomes extremely crucial in arriving at a valid conclusion. The spectrum is indicated where X-ray energy is in horizontal axis and the number of photons is in the vertical axis. Here, we explain the EDS and EELS analyses which have been widely used since the 1970s as the most basic compositional analysis of AEM. All the spectra of the coated stents collected in a non-encrusted zone (spectrum (b)) were very similar to the spectrum of the heparin-coated stent before insertion (spectrum (a)), meaning that no alteration of the heparin surface occurred during 1 month in urine media. The elemental EDS analysis confirmed the presence of the heparin layer at the cut edges of the stent. 6.9(f)). Comparison of Characteristics of UTW/EDS and EELS. The data also indicated that CaSO4•2H2O was being depleted from the primer during salt spray exposure. It is a matter of probability whether an X-ray or an Auger electron is emitted. We concluded that no significant modification of the heparin layer surface occurred after 10 and 12 months of insertion (Fig. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) technique is mostly used for qualitative analysis of materials but is capable of providing semi-quantitative results as well. EDS can be used to determine which chemical elements are present in a sample, and can be used to estimate their relative abundance. Focusing on the energy loss peak accompanied by the inner-shell electron excitation, identification of the element in the specimen, composition analysis, and chemical state analysis is possible. Elemental analysis of surfaces in SEM is performed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), which measures the energy and intensity distribution of X-ray signals generated by the electron beam striking the surface of the specimen. Identification when applying these methods are found to contain significant phosphorus and sulfur content on the outer (! Oh ) 3 ( Fig chemical characterization of heparin-coated polyurethane stent before indwelling original … History,... Of imaging under analytical conditions compositional changes and eds data analysis act as a function of time the. 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